Carlos shared, “Peter was a lone soldier. As we look at the first, famous picture, it is no wonder that our eyes are immediately drawn to Carlos and Smith making their powerful statement. The build-up to the 1968 Summer Olympic games in Mexico City, was quiet and scandal free. On the contrary. Two have their fists raised above their heads. Before the games, word had spread in the Olympic village that Smith and Carlos were planning a protest if they won medals. Recalled Carlos: "I expected to see fear in Norman’s eyes, but instead we saw love." They went shoeless, wearing black socks, to represent the poverty facing people of color in the U.S.  Smith wore a black scarf and Carlos a bead necklace in memory of African Americans who had been lynched, and both raised their fists in a gesture Carlos said was meant to represent "power to the people." All three men are wearing similar black outfits and have ribbons with metal objects around their necks. On the contrary. Invite a few students to share out with the full group. A closer analysis of the image shows that Carlos, the runner who placed third, has his glove on the left hand. Jules studied English Literature with Creative Writing at Lancaster University before earning her masters in International Relations at Leiden University in The Netherlands (Hoi!). What are your thoughts about Smith and Carlos’ actions? There was a social injustice that I couldn’t do anything about from where I was, but I certainly hated it. The IOC withdrew its invitations for South Africa and Rhodesia, but the other conditions were not met. Their courage was memorialized in this statue erected at San Jose State University. Norman also experienced a backlash upon his return to Australia, ostracised from the Australian team and left struggling to find work. How? And the moon is the only light we'll see Unlike Smith and Carlos, Norman was not immediately suspended from the Olympic team. But Peter Normans role in this image is one of an ally and was entirely deliberate. However, just above their northern boarder in the United States of America, civil unrest had gripped the nation for more than a decade, which threatened to derail an Olympic schedule which they had been expected to perform. What did the men lose as a result of their actions? (See a photo here. These four men and their differing roles of involvement in the image, helped to create not only a symbol of the Civil Rights Movement, but one that would go on to serve as an Olympic Icon. Then ask students if there is anything they learned from today’s lesson. According to an ally is: Step 1: Objective Description  It meant that for many Black Americans, such as Professor Edwards, the chance for Black Americans to perform at the Olympics for the USA was just that; a performance, as if the athletes were ‘performing animals in the games.’. Circle format: If you are using a circle format, consider sending the word ALLY around the circle to elicit associations in the following way:  Turn to the student next to you and say ALLY, inviting him/her to respond with whatever word first comes to mind. What do you think is beyond the image? What did this person do or say that was supportive? Professor Edwards and his organisation, the Olympic Project for Human Rights felt so strongly opposed to the conditions that Black citizens were subjected to, that he called for Black Athletes to boycott the 1968 games. In an official statement, Brundage described the salute as being ‘a deliberate and violent breach of the fundamental principles of the Olympic spirit’, as per the Time Life book The Olympics: Moments That Changed History. But when he was invited to condemn the actions of Smith and Carlos at the 1968 games, which would have made life for himself and his family much easier, he refused. The two who are raising their arms and fists have a darker skin color than the third man, and they are looking down while the third man is looking straight ahead. Both times Peter Norman answered; ‘yes.’ Before saying “I will stand with you.”. What are your thoughts about Norman’s actions? In this way the word ALLY continues around the circle, eliciting associations from all students. If you were to bring the background into focus, what might you see? Despite being offered multiple opportunities to be welcomed back into the fold if he condemned Smith and Carlos and separated himself from the historic event, he stood by his fellow activists until the end. Ask them to compare and contrast the two men on the right of the photo with the man on the left. On close inspection, we can see that he is wearing the same badge as Carlos and Smith - the badge of the Olympic Project for Human Rights. 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"He consciously chose to be a sacrificial lamb in the name of human rights. It has been said that sharing my silver medal with that incident on the victory dais detracted from my performance. Peter Norman and his family were ostracized in a country that continued to promote racist laws and segregation. Norman was from a country with strict apartheid laws, which he was vehemently against. "That way I can show my support for your cause," he said. And the land is dark On one side, the argument was that Black Americans should not represent a country that views them as second class citizens, and if it meant the United States missed out on medal winning opportunities because of it, it was the United States’ own fault. Before the three took their steps on the podium, the winner of their event, Tommie Smith asked Norman two simple questions. At the end of the activity, invite students to come up with a definition of ally. Norman qualified for the Olympics in Germany four years later, for both the 200m and 100m races – in fact, his time of 20.06 seconds remains an Oceanian record to this day – but he was cruelly left off the Australian team. Do you believe they had an impact? "Peter was a lone soldier," said Carlos. The African American athletes, who had earned gold and bronze medals in the 200-metre running event, were photographed standing on the podium, each silently raising a black-gloved fist as the US national anthem, The Star Spangled Banner, played. At the funeral Tommie Smith and John Carlos, who had been friends with him since that day in 1968, were his pallbearers. Back home they faced further threats and repercussions, but with time things changed and they were seen for what they were: champions of the Civil Rights Movement.

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