Biology Department, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN 55812; and Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100710, China. Countries such as India gained food security through the green revolution as well and also became an exporter of rice. Rice is the most familiar food eaten in grain form in the United States, typically served as a side dish. Recently, methods such as SRI (system of rice intensification) have been introduced, where single saplings are planted in straight lines at a fixed distance apart. Rice can be boiled or steamed, or else first ground into flour and made into noodles, breads, cakes, and other products. Oryza glaberrima, or African rice, includes long- and short-grain varieties. From brown rice to sticky rice, long-grain to short-grain, you can buy many kinds of rice and rice products in stores today. In addition to consuming rice grains cooked in the usual ways, there are many other rice-based food and drink products that can be prepared for human consumption. These ?ndings are reshaping our understanding of rice domestication and also have implications for understanding the complex evolutionary process of plant domestication. Although rice consumption is spread across income classes relatively equally in low-income countries, the poorest people consume relatively little wheat. Rice was first grown in the American colonies in the late 17th century. Do Not Sell My Info In the US, however, most white rice is enriched with thiamin, niacin, folate, and iron, as well as fiber and selenium. John Kerry King has interestingly observed that in Thailand the very concept of food is rooted in rice, with the two main Thai words for food being "khaw" (meaning "rice") and “kab khaw" (meaning "with rice"). Some wild rice varieties that grow in water-logged swamps also have yet another curious property: they are perennial, unlike other oft-cultivated rice varieties that are annual plants. This selection process continued for generations, through centuries, and gradually the seed size of the cultivated variety grew larger and larger. for another 1,000 years or perhaps longer. Globally, rice is the staple food of 3.5 billion … Rice provided 19% of global human per capita energy and 13% of per capita protein in 2009. The gap between demand and supply in sub-Saharan Africa, where rice is grown and eaten in 38 countries, reached 10 million tons of milled rice in 2008, costing the region an estimated $3.6 billion for imports. The domestication of wild animals and plants was key to humans transforming their nomadic habits and settling down in certain locations. So most rice contains trace amounts of inorganic arsenic. Nine out of every ten people in the world who eat rice are Asian. The new strains of rice thus developed had disease resistance and enhanced productivity. However, you can reduce arsenic residues by 25 to 45 percent by cooking it in pasta-style—in a lot of water—and then draining the water when the rice is done. Urban dwellers who rarely ate rice only a few decades ago now consume it daily. Rice is the most familiar food eaten in grain form in the United States, typically served as a side dish. The major rice-producing countries today are China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Vietnam. Human consumption accounts for 85% of total production for rice, compared with 72% for wheat and 19% for maize. Similar strong consumption growth has also been evident among Middle Eastern countries with rice consumption almost doubling in the last two decades. The dwarf varieties of rice can be as small as just above 100 centimeters in height, while the tall varieties can grow higher than even a 6-foot-tall human being. The aggregate population of the less developed countries grew from 2.3 billion in 1965 to 4.4 billion in 1995. Rice was also cultivated in India as early as 5000 BP, but the domesticated indica subspecies currently appears to be a product of the introgression of favorable alleles from japonica. Wheat is the leader in area harvested each year with 214 million ha, followed by rice with 154 million ha and maize with 140 million ha. The story of rice can be seen as a mirror image of the story of human civilization itself. In Latin America and the Caribbean, there has been a 40% increase in rice consumption over the last two decades due to a combination of population growth and steadily rising per capita consumption. Dry-land cultivation of rice is another potential practice that evolved only about 5,000 years ago. Interestingly, although it appears rice was cultivated in the area by as early 8000 BP, the key domestication trait of nonshattering was not ?xed. Rice provides 21% of global human per capita energy and 15% of per capita protein. Agricultural population densities on Asia�s rice producing lands are among the highest in the world and continue to increase at a remarkable rate. It has been estimated that for every one billion people added to the world’s population, 100 million more tons of rice (paddy) need to be produced annually. Human consumption in 2009 accounted for 78% of total production for rice, compared with 64% for wheat and 14% for maize. In most of the developing world, rice availability is equated with food security and closely connected to political stability. Although rice is lower in protein than other cereal grains, its protein quality is good because it contains relatively high levels of the essential amino acid lysine. In African countries, such as Nigeria, Tanzania, and Niger, people are moving away from tubers and cassava to rice with rising income. Worldwide research in rice is now focused on increasing productivity and making varieties that can be cultivated year round. In the Americas, total rice consumption is projected to rise by 33% over the next 25 years. In Indian culture and agricultural practices, there are many rituals that put rice in the center of worship. Rice: The Staple of Japanese Food Culture June 22, 2018 by TOKI. A staple food is one that is eaten regularly and in such quantities as to constitute the dominant part of the diet and supply a major proportion of energy and nutrient needs.. A staple food does not meet a population's total nutritional needs: a variety of foods is required. Though debate continues whether rice originated in China or India, it is also possible that many river deltas saw a parallel evolution at a given point in time—and that time was around 6000 BC and 3000 BC. Efforts to diversify through campaigns and regulations have not brought significant results.